For our current customers, please login to the Customer Support Portal to view a more comprehensive list of FAQs.
The Carterra LSA utilizes gold standard Surface Plasmon Resonance to detect binding interactions in real-time for up to 384 samples in parallel. While traditional SPR biosensors have practical limitations in the number of unique measurable locations per surface area, imaging-based SPR can monitor hundreds of locations within a tightly constructed array, while still maintaining excellent sensitivity and data collection rates.
The LSA utilizes a laser diode light source to illuminate the functionalized gold surface at the interface with the prism and reflected light is detected via a high-resolution CCD camera. At the boundary of the functionalized gold layer and the glass prism a certain fraction of incident light photons propagates as surface plasmons, forming an evanescent field which is sensitive to changes in refractive index (RI) at the functionalized surface. When the RI changes, such as when molecules bind, the angle of incident photon absorption shifts and this change in the minima of reflected light is used to quantify binding.
While the CCD camera in the LSA can monitor the entire area, data collection is focused on locations by using flow printing technology (up to 384), as well as unprinted locations typically used as references (48), totaling 432 spots, over which a single analyte is then flowed.
Benefits include 100x more data, in 10% of the time to answer and requirement of 1% sample requirements of other platforms while delivering greater throughput and assay sensitivity.
Stability of the ligand needs to be considered when developing an SPR assay and assuming the ligand is stable in its assay buffer, loss of activity across multiple prints should be minimal.
Rmax represents the maximal feasible SPR signal generated by an interaction between a ligand – analyte pair and is represented in response units (RU). In the Rmax equation below, RL corresponds to the RU level of ligand on the surface. MWA and MWL are the analyte and ligand molecular weights, respectively, and ValencyL is the valency or number of discrete analyte binding sites on the ligand.
Rmax is most commonly fitted globally for a single ligand-analyte pair. If an analyte species is injected at different concentrations over same ligand surface, then the theoretical Rmax will be the same for every injection. However, if for example the binding sites decrease due to surface regeneration, then the Rmax may vary from one analyte injection to another.
Having observed Rmax greater than its theoretical value can be indicative of insufficient curvature during the association phase. An Rmax below the expected theoretical max could indicate loss of ligand activity.
Floating the Rmax is an option in the Kinetics™ analysis software allowing the binding curves in a kinetic titration to be fit independent of one another with regard to Rmax. Floating Rmax should be used only in specific circumstances. Here are 2 scenarios where it is appropriate to use the floating Rmax option:
Since Rmax is changing across the assay in these 2 scenarios, differences between the data and the fitting model are increased when applying a global Rmax value and therefore local Rmax fitting is more appropriate.
Sensitivity limitations for lower MW analytes will depend on the interaction being measured. SPR is a mass-based detection technology and the analyte binding signal is proportional to the stoichiometry of the interaction and can be theoretically calculated. As a general rule, in order to maintain a specific RU signal, ligand density will need be increased as analyte MW decreases, with attention paid to the binding stoichiometry of the ligand and analyte.
Here is an example of a lower MW analyte binding to captured antibodies:
40 RU Rmax = 3000 RU x (1 kDa / 150 kDa ) x 2
The standard deviation of the residuals reports the overall agreement of the fitting model vs. the observed data. It is calculated using the sum of squared differences between each observed data point (Rx) and the model value (Rm) divided by the total number of points. Res sd is reported in RU.